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高校教师科技成果转化面临的问题分析与对策研究

来源:用户上传      作者:曹立砥 梁森

  摘要高校是科技生产、学术创新、人才培养的重要基地,有能力、有责任肩负科技成果转化重任,提升科技成果转化率。目前国内科技成果转化面临科研经费来源单一、项目运行链条长、科技成果转化效率不高等问题。产生这种现象可能是因为存在科技成果供需不匹配、科研内生动力不足、评价体系不健全等制约因素。为此,从优化立项分类、落实创新主体作用、完善评价机制等角度入手,提出推动高校科技成果有效转化的途径,以期为科技成果产业化发展提供借鉴。
  关键词科技成果转化;问题分析;制约因素;高校
  中图分类号:G644.6文献标识码:A DOI:10.16400/j.cnki.kjdk.2022.06.003
  Analysis and Countermeasures of the Problems Faced by College Teachers in the Transformation of Scientific and Technological Achievements
  CAO Lidi, LIANG Sen
  (Xidian University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710071)
  Abstract Colleges and universities are important bases for scientific and technological production, academic innovation, and talent training. They have the ability and responsibility to shoulder the important task of transforming scientific and technological achievements and increase the transformation rate of our country. At present, the transformation of domestic scientific and technological achievements is faced with problems such as a single source of scientific research funding, a long project operation chain, and low efficiency in the transformation of scientific and technological achievements. This phenomenon may have restrictive factors such as mismatch between supply and demand of scientific and technological achievements, insufficient endogenous motivation of scientific research, and imperfect evaluation system. To this end, starting from the perspectives of optimizing the classification of projects, implementing the role of the innovation subject, and improving the evaluation mechanism, it proposes ways to promote the effective transformation of scientific and technological achievements in universities, with a view to providing reference for the industrialization of scientific and technological achievements.
  Keywords transformation of scientific and technological achievements; problem analysis; restrictive factors; colleges and universities
  近年来,中国科研实力取得了举世瞩目的巨大进步,科研成果发表数量持续扩增,位居世界前列。以专利为例,2019年全年中国向 PCT(专利国际申请)共计提交5.899万件专利,处于全球第一。与此同时,国内专利人均拥有数量也在持续增加。依据国家知识产权局公开数据显示,截至 2020年 12月,国内成功申请专利共计221.3万件,每万人口人均发明专利达到15.8件。高校由于自身拥有的人才和知识优势,成为科技成果的重要来源。[1]从科研力量投入来看,2017年全国科研人员中有46.6%来自高校,31.2%来自研究机构。在这样的背景下,加强高校科技成果转化,提高科研效率,成为高校服务经济社会发展的迫切需要,成为贯彻落实创新驱动战略的一项关键任务。
  1 高校科技成果转化现状
  高校科研费最主要的来源是政府投入,科研项目从立项到应用的链条较长。以2017年为例,高校科研经费中,63.6%来自政府投入,28.5%来自企业资金,7.9%来自国外资金和其他资金。长期以来,政府投入在高校科研经费中占比最大,基本在一半以上。[2]最普遍的情况是,政府以税收形式筹集资金,通过财政预算安排方式分配到高校;[3]然后通过一系列的专家评审、同行评议等流程确定具体科研项目,最后形成专利、论文、结题报告等科技成果。科技成果再由高校通过转化机构与产业界结合,最终产生经济和社会效益。总体上看,科技成果产出转化的链接较长。

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